A large number of the refugees coming to Australia have been exposed to traumatic events, and most will have experienced multiple traumas, including war and violence, deprivation, and the death or disappearance of loved ones. Many will also have been subjected to torture or severe human rights violations. The physical consequences of torture and trauma are many, ranging from chronic pain to heart problems. Despite the amazing resilience of refugees and the many contributions they make to Australian society, they will often need specialised assistance to overcome the effects of their experiences. With some help, torture and trauma survivors are more likely to live fruitful and fulfilling lives.