I obtained a B.Sc. Pharm. degree, majoring in chemistry from Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. M.B. ChB was studied at Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital and Pretoria Universities. An internship year was completed in Port Elizabeth and in Ladysmith, Natal. This was followed by a Senior Medical Officer position in a country town, Dundee, in Natal.
In preparation for the primary surgery examination I accepted a position as general practitioner on a diamond mine, Oranjemund in Namibia. This was followed by studies in London for the primary F.R.A.C.S.